Grammar

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Prepositions Khmer
and

និង
níg

above

ខាងលើ
xag leu

under

ក្រោម
krôm

before

មុន
món

after

ក្រោយមក / បន្ទាប់មក
krôy mk / bnţa’b mk

in front of

នៅខាងមុខ
nw xag móx

behind

ខាងក្រោយ
xag krôy

far from

ឆ្ងាយពី
zgay pi

near

ជិត
jít

in

ក្នុង
knóg

inside

ខាងក្នុង
xag knóg

outside

ខាងក្រៅ
xag krw

with

ជាមួយ
ja muoy

without

គ្មាន
qman

about

អំពី
·ṃ pi

between

ចន្លោះ / រវាង
cnlôḥ / rvag

but

ប៉ុន្តែ
b:óntae

for

សម្រាប់ / ចំពោះ
smra’b / cṃ pôḥ

from

ពី / មកពី
pi / mk pi

to

ទៅ/ឆ្ពោះ
ţw/ zpôḥ

Preposition Grammar Rules

The following examples use prepositions in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Prepositions + Rules Khmer
I eat without a knife
[preposition + noun]

ខ្ញុំញាំមិនបាច់កាំបិត
xñóṃ ñaṃ mín ba’c kaṃ bít

she lives near the church
[verb + preposition]

នាងរស់នៅជិតវិហ៊ារ
nag r’s nw jít víh`ar

he is taller than her
[adjective + preposition]

គាត់ខ្ពស់ជាងនាង
qa’t xp’s jag nag

he came with his small dog
[preposition + pronoun]

គាត់បានមកជាមួយឆ្កែរបស់គាត់
qa’t ban mk jamuoy zkae rb’s qa’t

can you come with me?
[preposition + pronoun]

តើអ្នកអាចមកជាមួយខ្ញុំទេ?
teu n·k ·ac mk jamuoy xñóṃ ţe?

Negation in Khmer

Now let”s learn how to make a negative sentence (negation). For example:: Saying no, I can”t, I don”t … The following examples use negation in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a sentence.

Negation + Rules Khmer
I understand you
[affirmative form]

ខ្ញុំយល់អំពីអ្នក
xñóṃ y’l ·ṃ pi n·k

I don”t understand you
[negation + verb]

ខ្ញុំមិនយល់អំពីអ្នក
xñóṃ mín y’l ·ṃ pi n·k

this is not the correct word
[negation + adjective]

ពាក្យនេះមិនត្រឹមត្រូវ
paky neḥ mín trúm trov

don”t leave me
[imperative negation]

កុំទុកខ្ញុំចោល
kóṃ ţók xñóṃ côl

no problem
[negation + noun]

គ្មានបញ្ហា
qman bñha

Negative Sentences Khmer
I don”t speak French
[negation + present tense]

ខ្ញុំមិននិយាយភាសាបារាំង
xñóṃ mín níyay ᵽasa baraṃg

she didn”t visit Germany
[negation + past tense]

នាងមិនបានទៅអាលីម៉ង់ទេ
nag mínban ţw ·alim:’g ţe

he cannot see us
[negative modal verb]

គាត់មិនអាចឃើញយើង
qa’t mín ·ac ᶍeuñ yeug

can”t she play chess?
[interrogative negation]

តើនាងអាចលេងអុកបានទេ?
teu nag ·ac leg ·ók banţe?

we will not come late
[negation + future tense]

យើងនិងមិនមកយឺតទេ
yeug níg mín mk yut ţe

Questions in Khmer

Now let”s learn how to ask questions (interrogative). Such as:: what, why, can you …? Here are some common examples::

English Khmer
how?

យ៉ាងម៉េច?
y:ag m:ec?

what?

អ្វី?
·vi?

who?

អ្នកណា?
n·k ńa?

why?

ហេតុអ្វី?
hetó·vi?

where?

នៅណា?
nw ńa?

More of the interrogative form, now in a sentence::

Questions + Rules Khmer
where do you live?
[interrogative + verb]

តើអ្នកស្នាក់នៅទីណា?
teu n·k sna’k nw ţińa?

does she speak Chinese?
[interrogative verb]

តើនាងនិយាយភាសាចិនទេ?
teu nag níyay ᵽasa cín ţe?

how much is this?
[interrogative preposition]

តើនេះថ្លៃប៉ុន្មាន?
teu neḥ ŧlai b:ónman?

can I help you?
[interrogative modal verb]

តើអ្នកត្រូវការអ្វី?
teu n·k trovkar ·vi?

what is your name?
[interrogative preposition]

តើអ្នកឈ្មោះអ្វី?
teu n·k çmôḥ ·vi?

Adverbs in Khmer

It”s time to learn the adverbs in Khmer. But what is an adverb? In general, adverbs modify verbs and adjectives. For example:: You speak fast. The adverb is [fast] because it describes the verb and answers the question how do you speak?. Here is a list of the most common ones::

Adverbs Khmer
now

ឥឡូវនេះ
íłovneḥ

yesterday

ម្សិលមិញ
msílmíñ

today

ថ្ងៃនេះ
ŧgai neḥ

tonight

យប់នេះ
y’b neḥ

tomorrow

ថ្ងៃស្អែក
ŧgai s·aek

soon

ឆាប់ៗ
za’b ~

quickly

យ៉ាងរហ័ស
y:ag rhâs

slowly

យ៉ាងយឺតៗ
y:ag yut~

together

ព្រមជាមួយគ្នា
prm jamuoy qna

very

ណាស់
ńa’s

almost

ភាគច្រើន /ស្ទើរតែទាំងអស់
ᵽaq creun /sţeur tae ţaṃg ·’s

always

ជានិច្ចកាល
ja nícc kal

usuolly

តាមធម្មតា
tamťmmta

sometimes

ពេលខ្លះ
pel xlḥ

rarely

ដោយកម្រ
dôy kmr

never

មិនដែល
mín dael

The following examples use the adverbs in different ways and places to demonstrate how it behaves in a sentence.

Adverbs + Rules Khmer
do you understand me now?
[pronoun + adverb]

តើអ្នកយល់ខ្ញុំហើយរឺនៅ?
teu n·k y’l xñóṃ heuy ru nw?

I need help immediately
[noun + adverb]

ខ្ញុំត្រូវការជំនួយជាបន្ទាន់
xñóṃ trovkar jṃ nuoy ja bnţa’n

she is very intelligent
[adverb + adjective]

នាងឆ្លាតណាស់
nag zlat ńa’s

I will always love you
[verb + adverb]

ខ្ញុំនិងស្រលាញ់អ្នកជារៀងរហូត
xñóṃ níg srla’ñ n·k ja rieg rhot

can we learn German together?
[adverb in a question]

តើយើងអាចរៀនភាសាអាលីម៉ង់ជាមួយគ្នាទេ?
teu yeug ·ac rien ᵽasa ·alim:’g jamuoy qna ţe?

Pronouns in Khmer

We”re almost done! This time we will learn the pronouns in Khmer. In general, a pronoun can be used instead of a noun. For example instead of saying my teacher speaks 3 languoges, you can use the pronoun he, and say he speaks 3 languoges. Here is a list of the most common ones::

Personal/Object Pronouns Khmer
I/me

ខ្ញុំ
xñóṃ
knyom

you

លោក/អ្នក
lôk/n·k
(loak/nee-uk)

he/him

គាត់
qa’t
(quot)

she/her

នាង
nag
(nee-ung)

we/us

យើង
yeug
(yeung)

they/them

ពួកគេ
puok qe
(poo-kay)

Possessive Pronouns Khmer
my

របស់ខ្ញុំ
rb’s xñóṃ
(roboh-k’nyom)

your

របស់លោក/អ្នក
rb’s lôk/n·k
(roboh-nee-uk)

his

របស់គាត់
rb’s qa’t

her

របស់នាង
rb’s nag

our

របស់យើង
rb’s yeug

their

របស់ពួកគេ
rb’s puok qe

Personal Pronouns Khmer
I am your friend
[1st pronoun + verb]

ខ្ញុំជាមិត្តអ្នក
xñóṃ ja mítt n·k

you speak very fast
[2nd pronoun + adverb]

អ្នកនិយាយលឿន
n·k níyay leuon

he has three dogs
[3rd pronoun + verb]

គាត់មានឆ្កែបី
qa’t man zkae bi

she can speak German
[3rd pronoun + verb]

នាងអាចនិយាយភាសាអាលីម៉ង់
nag ·ac níyay ᵽasa ·alim:’g

we will not come late
[1st plural pronoun]

យើងនិងមិនមកយឺតទេ
yeug níg mín mk yut ţe

they bought milk and bread
[3rd plural pronoun]

គេទិញនុំប៉ាំងនិងទឹកដោះគោ
qe ţíñ nóṃ b:aṃg níg ţúk dôḥ qô

The object pronoun is used as a target by a verb, and usuolly come after that verb. For example:: I gave him my book. The object pronoun here is him. Here are more examples::

Object Pronouns Khmer
can you tell me your name?
[1st object pronoun]

តើអ្នកអាចប្រាប់ឈ្មោះអ្នកបានទេ?
teu n·k ·ac bra’b çmôḥ n·k banţe?

I will give you money
[2nd object pronoun]

ខ្ញុំនិងអោយលុយអ្នក
xñóṃ níg ·ôy lóy n·k

she wrote him a letter
[3rd object pronoun]

នាងសរសេរសំបុត្រអោយគាត់
nag srser sṃ bótr ·ôy qa’t

they visited her yesterday
[3rd object pronoun]

ពួកគេសូរសុខទុកនាងម្សិលមិញ
puok qe sorsóx ţók nag msílmíñ

can she help us?
[1st pl. object pronoun]

តើនាងអាចជួយយើងបានទេ?
teu nag ·ac juoy yeug banţe?

he gave them food
[3rd pl. object pronoun]

គាត់អោយម្ហូបទៅពួកគេ
qa’t ·ôy mhob ţw puok qe

Possessive Pronouns Khmer
my name is Maya
[1st possessive pronoun]

ខ្ញឈ្មោះម៉ាយ៉ា
xñ çmôḥ m:ay:a

your brother lives here
[2nd possessive pronoun]

បងប្រុសអ្នករស់នៅទីនេះ
bg brós n·k r’snw ţineḥ

her mother cooks for us
[3rd possessive pronoun]

ម្ដាយនាងដាំស្លរអោយយើង
mday nag daṃ slr ·ôy yeug

his hobby is reading books
[3rd possessive pronoun]

ចំណូលចិត្តរបស់គាត់គឺអានសៀវភៅ
cṃ ńolcítt rb’s qa’t qu ·an siev ᵽw

our dream is to visit Paris
[1st pl. possessive pronoun]

សុបិនរបស់យើងគឺទៅលេងប៉ារីស
sóbín rb’s yeug qu ţw leg b:aris

their house is not far
[3rd pl. possessive pronoun]

ផ្ទះរបស់ពួកគេនៅមិនឆ្ងាយទេ
fţḥ rb’s puok qe nw mín zgay ţe

One more thing you need to know is the demonstrative pronouns. They”re very easy to learn.

Demonstrative Pronouns Khmer
this is my house

នេះគឺជាផ្ទះរបស់ខ្ញុំ
neḥ qu ja fţḥ rb’s xñóṃ

that restaurant is far

ភោជនីយដ្ថាននៅឆ្ងាយ
ᵽôjniy d ŧan nw zgay

these apples are delicious

ផ្លែប៉មទាំងនោះមានរស់ជាតិ
flae b:m ţaṃg nôḥ man r’s jatí

those stars are shiny

ផ្កាយទាំងនោះមានពន្លឺ
fkay ţaṃg nôḥ man pnlu

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